Molecules with hydrogen atoms bonded to electronegative atoms such as O, N, and F (and to a much lesser extent, Cl and S) tend to exhibit unusually strong intermolecular interactions. These result in much higher boiling points than are observed for substances in which London dispersion forces dominate, as illustrated for the covalent hydrides of elements of groups 1417 in Figure \(\PageIndex<5>\). This is the expected trend in nonpolar molecules, for which London dispersion forces are the exclusive intermolecular forces. In contrast, the hydrides of the lightest members of groups 1517 have boiling points that are more than 100°C greater than predicted on the basis of their molar masses. The effect is most dramatic for water: if we extend the straight line connecting the points for H2Te and H2Se to the line for period 2, we obtain an estimated boiling point of ?130°C for water! Imagine the implications for life on Earth if water boiled at ?130°C rather than 100°C.
Figure \(\PageIndex<5>\): The Effects of Hydrogen Bonding on Boiling Points. 3, and H2O) are anomalously high for compounds with such low molecular masses.
These types of plots of land of one’s boiling hot products of covalent hydrides off the current weather from teams 1417 show that new boiling factors of the fresh lightest people in for every series in which hydrogen connecting are you’ll (HF, NH
Why do strong intermolecular forces produce such anomalously high boiling points and other unusual properties, such as high enthalpies of vaporization and high melting points? Read more